Improving IT security by implementing better governance

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In the face of ever-increasing cybersecurity risks, significant attention is being paid to improving agencies' preparedness and response to vulnerabilities and threats throughout the public sector. Two ways to go about supporting those activities involve addressing cybersecurity from a risk-based framework and engaging top-level leadership in addressing security as a strategic priority. A third complementary imperative involves establishing an overall IT governance structure that includes cybersecurity as a key enabler to achieving programmatic outcomes.

Fortunately, agencies have a number of tools at their disposal to enhance their governance framework.

1. OMB policy drivers for IT governance

At the end of 2008, the Office of Management and Budget reaffirmed and clarified the organizational, functional and operational governance framework required within the executive branch for managing and optimizing the effective use of IT. OMB Memorandum 09-02 established an IT governance framework that addresses the management structure, responsibilities and authorities of heads of departments and agencies and their CIOs in planning, acquiring, securing, operating and managing IT systems and assets within the department or agency.

The memo requires that agencies designate an executive-level CIO who reports to the head of the organization and has formal and full responsibility for all requirements set forth in statutes, regulations and public laws. That CIO also has ultimate responsibility for the governance, management and delivery of IT mission and business programs at the agency and must have an effective operative means of meeting that responsibility.

Furthermore, the CIO has the authority to set agencywide IT policy, including all areas of IT governance such as enterprise architecture and standards, IT capital planning and investment management, IT asset management, IT budgeting and acquisition, IT performance management, IT risk management and IT workforce management. The authority also extends to IT security and operations and IT information security, working with the agency chief information security officer and other security officials.

In August 2011, OMB issued related guidance in memo 11-29, which updated policy regarding the CIO's role in IT governance and explicitly discussed information security as part of the CIO's responsibilities. Taken together, those two OMB memos provide a strong framework for incorporating security considerations into overarching IT governance and strategy. That approach allows agency leaders to properly assess security risks in the context of risks and benefits from IT initiatives more broadly and from the programs that leverage IT and require good security to be successful.

2. An industry framework for implementation

One way to achieve the objectives of strong IT governance is to incorporate the COBIT 5 framework as a guide to implementing sound IT governance at the enterprise level. COBIT, which stands for Control Objectives for Information and Related Technology, serves as a business framework for the governance and management of enterprise IT and clearly defines IT governance as distinct from IT management. According to the COBIT 5 framework: "Governance ensures that stakeholder needs, conditions and options are evaluated to determine balanced, agreed-on enterprise objectives to be achieved; setting direction through prioritization and decision-making; and monitoring performance and compliance against agreed-on direction and objectives."

Furthermore, "management plans, builds, runs and monitors activities in alignment with the direction set by the governance body to achieve the enterprise objectives."

As technology use continues to increase the spread and impact of IT and cyber vulnerabilities and incidents, so do the tools and techniques to improve controls to protect key enterprise resources. The COBIT 5 framework is one of those tools. (COBIT 5 currently consists of the framework, two enabler guides, four professional guides, and COBIT 5 Online Collaborative Environment.) Moreover, COBIT 5 is one of the informative references contained in the National Institute of Standards and Technology's Cybersecurity Framework.

COBIT 5 is built on five basic principles and includes extensive guidance on enablers for governance and management of enterprise IT. Enterprises can use COBIT 5 framework principles to create optimal value by governing IT in a holistic manner, implementing comprehensive risk management and security controls, and ensuring that those controls are defined and implemented at a level appropriate to the increasing complexity of the enterprise.

The COBIT 5 framework delivers to its stakeholders the most complete and up-to-date guidance on governance and management of enterprise IT, as depicted in the graphic below.


Image: ISACA

COBIT has proved to be very effective for implementing IT governance and detailed security controls globally at all sorts of institutions and a number of federal and state government agencies, including the Department of Veterans Affairs.

3. Sound IT governance can make a significant difference

In light of the constant changes in the IT environment, all enterprises should look to IT governance to secure information from the moment it is created to the time it is destroyed. That is why, in the past decade, IT governance has moved to the forefront of enterprise efforts to effectively manage and appropriately protect IT systems and assets, contributing to the success of risk-based security and supporting strategic decisions made by C-level executives across the public and private sectors.

Note: A version of this article also appears on the IBM Center for the Business of Government website.

About the Authors

Dan Chenok is executive director of the IBM Center for the Business of Government.

John Lainhart leads IBM's Public Sector Cybersecurity and Privacy Services.

Cyber. Covered.

Government Cyber Insider tracks the technologies, policies, threats and emerging solutions that shape the cybersecurity landscape.


Reader comments

Fri, May 16, 2014 Williamson

Interesting take on governance and management of enterprise IT, the combination of the new COBIT 5 framework and other influences will result in more stringent control process. With the sarbanes-oxley act in effect it will be interesting to see how this will impact internal audit. I work with McGladrey and there’s an article on our website about SOX Act that highlights the need for a newly re-focused evaluation of internal controls that readers of this article may find it useful. @ “SOX Reset 2014”

Tue, May 6, 2014

Not to deride the benefits of risk-based security, governance, or a top-down strategic approach but this article does little to explain the practical aspects of such an approach, or what security is and what is its goal? First why, then what and then how? The problem is one of mindset. 90% of the security “experts” I deal with have a tactical mindset and start with the ‘how’. Also because many use a law enforcement approach ‘why’ is framed in terms of treats. Consider the statement: “cybersecurity as a key enabler to achieving programmatic outcomes” and then consider how this statement can be interpreted given the predisposition of the above approach. In other words, if the application of a tool is inappropriate one can at best expect similar results. While tactics are important shifting the focus to strategy requires one to focus on vulnerabilities. One should always ask ‘why’ then ‘what’ is being secured before focusing on ‘how’ best to guard against threats.

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