Making sense of governmentwide security

The call for a federal CIO has its roots in information security. In the

past decade, the government has formed numerous groups to formulate governmentwide

policies and interagency programs to improve security.

1989: Computer Emergency Response Team founded at Carnegie Mellon University.

1991: Defense Information Systems Agency's ASSIST formed.

1993: Air Force Information Warfare Center activated.

1994: Federal legislation criminalizes transmission of viruses over


1996: Justice Department calls for "Manhattan Project" for cybersecurity.

President's Commission on Critical Infra-structure Protection established.

1998: National Infrastructure Protection Center formed at the FBI.

Presidential Decision Directive 63 signed, requiring agencies to develop

plans to protect critical information systems. Critical Infrastructure Assurance

Office (CIAO) established. Joint Task Force for Computer Network Defense


1999: The CIAO proposes 10-point cyberdefense plan.

2000: President Clinton releases the National Plan for Information Systems

Protection. OMB calls for agencies to include information security programs

in their budgets.


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