Key laws for federal cyberdefenders

* Fourth Amendment to the Constitution: Protects all citizens against "unreasonable

searches and seizures."

* Electronic Communications Privacy Act: Gives an employer the right

to access an employee's e-mail and voice-mail messages if the messages are

maintained on a system provided by the government or the employer.

* Information Infrastructure Protection Act; also known as the "hacker

statute;" originally the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, amended in 1996:

Prohibits unauthorized access to computer systems and sets stiff penalties,

including fines and imprisonment.

* Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: Guides the process of applying

for search warrants to conduct electronic surveillance of agents of foreign

powers within the United States. Heard by a special court composed of

seven federal district judges designated by the chief justice of the Supreme

Court.

* Departmental Ethics Regulations; Executive Order 12674 issued by

President Bush in 1989 and modified in 1990 by Executive Order 12731: States

14 general principles that broadly define the obligations of public service.

Federal employees are expected to place their loyalties to the Constitution,

laws and ethical principles above private gain.

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